The field of law covers almost all areas of our life, from personal relationships to social and economic situations. It relates to the rights and obligations of individuals and groups and governs the rules and regulations of the judicial system. Law is divided into three main areas: civil law, criminal law, and labour law. The former is concerned with the tripartite relationship between workers and employers, and includes collective bargaining and regulation of rights and freedoms, as well as the right to strike. The latter is concerned with individual employment rights, such as those arising in the workplace. The third area of law is evidence law, which deals with admissibility of evidence in courts.
A legal system’s foundation is often derived from its own culture or religious beliefs. For example, Jewish Halakha and Islamic Sharia are based on religious precepts, while Christian canon law continues to exist in certain church communities. While religion can serve as a foundation for law, detailed legal systems are usually the product of human elaboration. In Islam, the Quran contains some law, which serves as a basis for further law through interpretation, analogy reasoning, and consensus.
The United Nations is also an important source of international law. Its Charter requires the organization to “encourage the progressive development of international law” and helps resolve international disputes. There are more than 500 multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary-General of the UN and other governments. These treaties cover subjects as diverse as human rights to disarmament.